Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria

Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt

Air pollution in Port-Harcourt has been extremely terrible, this hazard of poisoning the air in Port-Harcourt has been happening for over 8 years now. The particulate matter(PM) values, PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm) & PM 10 (<10 μm) values has been far above the required WHO standards of 5 μg/m3. The air quality monitor readings from Port-Harcourt city in Nigeria is at an average concentration of 63.1µg/m³, with US AQI of 155. The results from air quality monitoring in Port-Harcourt city are greater than Ten times (x10) the acceptable limits for human inhalation as required by WHO.

Air Quality Index for Port Harcourt

Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria
Man seen pouring crude oil directly into the fire, to increase the boilers fire (open air furnace above)

How to Protect Against Air Pollution

The best ways to survive the hazards of high levels of air pollution is by doing the following;

  1. Wear a face mask when outdoors
  2. Close your windows when indoors
  3. Put your air conditioning to only internal air circulation when indoors
  4. Use air purifiers for cleaning indoor air

Health Effects of Poor Air Quality

The are multiple effects of poor air quality which may finally lead to heart attacks and strokes. Depending on the concentration of specific air pollutants in the environment, some of the know effects are;

  • Increased deaths from heart disease, cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction, stroke, and lung diseases[5].
  • Higher chances of Mycardial infarction (heart attack).
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Pollution particles can pass through the olfactory bulb and get directly into the brain, causing inflammation [4].

Effects of Poor Air Quality to Unborn Children

Prenatal exposure to high levels of air pollution like Port-Harcourt City is currently experiencing can result in;

  • Developmental delay at age three
  • Psychological and behavioral problems later on, including symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression.

Sources of Air Pollution

Common air pollution sources globally are;

  • Burning of fossil fuels
  • Industrial processes fumes from chemical reactions or furnaces.
  • Agriculture activities
  • Waste treatment
  • Natural sources  – volcanic eruptions, sand/dust storms

Major Air Pollution Sources in Port-Harcourt

The major sources of air pollution in Port-Harcourt city, Nigeria are from 

  • Local refining of crude oil (i.e the bunkery business) and 
  • Gas flaring operations by Oil & Gas Companies
  • Open air furnaces

Recently the biggest contributor to air pollution has been the proliferation of local crude oil refining activities. This process of refining crude oil locally is highly inefficient and therefore produces a lot of air, water and land pollutants.

Illegal Crude Oil Refining Sites - Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria
Illegal Crude Oil Refining Sites - Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria

Major Air Pollutants from Local Crude Oil Refining

The method of locally refining the crude oil uses open fire boiler tanks, with fires are ignited by burning wood and pouring of crude oil directly. This process of burning (igniting) crude oil to create a fire for the boiler furnaces, produces smoke plume which contains pollutants like;

  • Soot (elemental carbon)
  • Wide range of condensed organic compounds, (including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Benzo(a)pyrene)
  • Sulfates(-S04)
  • CO2
  • CO, 
  • NOX, 
  • SO2
  • Secondary pollutants (such as Ozone, O3) may also be produced by chemical reactions within the smoke plume.

Why is Port-Harcourt City is Experiencing Air Pollution

Rivers State currently houses over 87% of all local crude oil refining (illegal) sites in Nigeria’s Niger-Delta Region, majority of these sites are located south-west of Port-Harcourt City. Most of the illegal crude oil refining sites are within a distance of 23km to 54km from Port-Harcourt City.

Therefore whenever the artisans are boiling the illegally acquired crude oil using fires ignited with crude oil, and there is a South or South-West wind blowing, the air pollutants from the each boilers fire starts accumulating at 300m – 400m above sea-level, and then travels downwind towards Port-Harcourt City, thus poisoning the air of the people in Port-Harcourt city.

A total of 439 local crude oil refining locations were identified using remote-sensing and satellite imagery, 380 of them are located mainly in the South West of Rivers State, within 23km-54km, SW from Port-Harcourt City as can be seen in Map 1 and Map 2 below.

Illegal Crude Oil Refining Sites - Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria
Map 1 : Terrain Imagery, all point indicating identified locations of Local Crude Oil Refining Sites
Illegal Crude Oil Refining Sites - Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria
Map 2 : Satellite Imagery, all point indicating identified locations of Local Crude Oil Refining Sites (Click to View Interactive Map)

An Experiment : The Environmental Effects of Burning Crude Oil

The results from a controlled scientific experiment that was carried out from burns of crude oil offshore of St. Johns, Newfoundland during the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), showed that 

  • The smoke plumes from the burns initially rose 200-400 m into the air and then continued to rise and disperse laterally downwind(i.e in the direction of wind). 
  • High particulate matter concentrations were not measured at sea level, since the smoke plume rose quickly to the upper part of the boundary layer (-300-500 m ASL)
  • The concentrations of accumulation-mode particles in the smoke were -45,000 cm-3 at 1.5 km from the fires, and they remained as high as -4,000 cm-3 after an hour or more of travel time downwind(i.e in the direction of wind). 
  • Total particle mass loadings in the plumes were over 1000 ug/m3 near the fires, but decreased to ~100-ug/m3 at 25 km downwind(i.e in the direction of wind). Note: PM 2.5 at concentration of 100 ug/m3 is 20 times above WHO standards and therefore harmful to the health.
  • For each kilogram of fuel consumed,
    • ~770 g of carbon was released in the form of CO2, 
    • ~13 g of carbon as CO, 
    • ~5 g as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 
    • ~87 gas particles with diameters <3.5 um, of which ~66 g was elemental carbon(soot) and ~7g condensed organic carbon. 
    • Also, ~3g of SO2 was released per kilogram of fuel burned. 
    • A relatively low combustion efficiency was indicated by the average molar ratio of the concentration of CO to excess CO2 of 0.017. 
    • The molar ratio of NOX to excess CO2 typically varied from 0.3 x 103 to 0.4 x 10-3, implying little fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and low concentrations of NOX.
    • For comparison, the total smoke particle production rate in the NOBE burns was about the same as that for a Nine-acre slash and burn of farming.

Another Study : The Concentration of Noxious Gases Inside and Outside Residential Apartments Across Different Settlements in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria

The results from the study (source) suggested that 

  • Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were higher than the WHO limit, while CO, CH4, NH, and O3 were below the WHO limit. 
  • The order of concentration is CO > SO2 > NO2 > CH4 > NH4 > O3.
  • CO concentration was highest in the morning, while NO2 and SO2 concentrations were highest in the evening. 
  • In the dry season CH4, NH4, NO2, and SO2 is higher, while CO concentration is higher during the wet season. 
  • Pollutant levels should be regularly monitored to help provide exposure advisory to city dwellers on the impact of atmospheric pollution on their health.

Air Quality Monitoring for Port-Harcourt

Monitoring your air quality daily helps you make decisions on when to wear your face mask. This might the the only saving solution for you, and your children, until the Government can act to stop the air pollution caused by illegal oil refining in Rivers State.

Here are links to a few website you can visit to monitor the quality in Port-Harcourt

Air Quality Index - AQI - Air Pollution in Port-Harcourt Nigeria

Related Resources

  1. Concentration of noxious gases inside and outside residential apartments across different settlements in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria
  2. Air Pollution – Britannia
  3. Explore search interest for Air Pollution, Soot, Air Quality by time, location and popularity on Google Trends – Nigeria
  4. Explore search interest for Air Pollution, Soot, Air Quality by time, location and popularity on Google Trends – Worldwide
  5. What are the WHO Air quality guidelines?
  6. Is air pollution causing us to lose our sense of smell?
  7. Air Pollution and Stroke – National Institute of Health(NIH)
  8. Air pollutants are emitted from man made and natural sources – European Environment Agency.
  9. A Model for Forecasting Air Quality Index in Port Harcourt Nigeria Using Bi-LSTM Algorithm
  10. Particle and Gas Emissions from an In Situ Burn of Crude Oil on the Ocean
  11. Illegal Artisanal Oil Refining in the Niger Delta – PIND’s Conflict Briefing: May 2022
  12. WHO Air Quality Guidelines should be used to set air pollution reduction targets in our cities
  13. Air Pollution Data Portal – The Global Health Observatory – Explore a world of health data – WHO
  14. Air Quality Database – WHO
COVID 19 Treatment Drugs Nigeria

COVID 19 Treatment Nigeria

They are some drugs for COVID 19 treatment that people are currently using to fight the Coronavirus (#COVID19) in Nigeria. This treatment involves a set of drugs that are not officially prescribed for patients by doctors, but the drugs are usually bought over the counter to personally assist in fighting hospitalization, need for oxygen, and deaths from #COVID19.

Official COVID 19 Prevention

The official way to handle COVID 19 treatments in Nigeria or any other part of the world are as follows;

  • By taking a vaccine (i.e. Pfizer BioNTech, Moderna or Johnson and Johnson/Janssen),
  • Washing of hands,
  • Do not touch eye, nose or mouth with your hands
  • Use of hand sanitizers
  • Cover your mouth when sneezing or coughing
  • Wear a face mask at all time.
  • Keep your immune system at optimal (take Vitamin C, Vit D and Zinc)
  • Regular exercising and sweating
  • Drink hot water
  • Stay in airy and well ventilated environments

List of COVID 19 treatment used in Nigeria

Use these drug prescriptions to fight COVID 19 illnesses

Proactive Treatment and Prevention of Hospitalisation from COVID 19 Pandemic

Treatment I

1Tabs Ivermectin12mgOnce Daily(OD)5 days
2Tabs Zinc100mgOnce Daily(OD)2 weeks
3Tabs Vitamin D4000iuOnce Daily(OD)2 weeks
4Tabs Azithromycin500mgOnce Daily(OD)6 days
5Tabs Levofloxacin500mgOnce Daily(OD)7 days
6Tabs Colchicine500mgTwice Daily (BD)5 days
7Tabs Chloroquine500mgTwice Daily (BD)3 days
8Tabs Doxycycline100mgTwice Daily (BD)7 days
9Tabs Dexamethasone6mgOnce Daily(OD)5 days
10Tabs N Acetyl Cysteine500mgTwice Daily (BD)6 weeks

Preventive Treatment I

1Tabs Ivermectin12mgOnce Daily(OD)5 days
2Tabs Vitamin C500mgTwice Daily (BD)3 weeks
3Tabs Zinc50mgOnce Daily(OD)4 weeks
4Tabs Chloroquine500mgOnce Daily(OD)5 days
5Tabs Vitamin D4000iuOnce Daily(OD)2 weeks

Treament II

Here is an alternate treatment and drugs prescriptions:

1Tabs Ivermectin12mgOnce Daily(OD)5 days
2Tabs Zinc100mgOnce Daily(OD)2 weeks
3Tabs Vitamin D4000iuOnce Daily(OD)2 weeks
4Tabs Azithromycin500mgOnce Daily(OD)6 days
5Tabs Levofloxacin500mgOnce Daily(OD)7 days
6Clarithromycin500mgOnce Daily(OD)7 days
7A lot of Cough syrup
8Tabs Azithromycin500mgOnce Daily(OD)5 days
9Tabs Vitamin C100mgThrice Daily(TDS)7 days
10Diclofenac suppository100mgTwice Daily (BD)3 days
11Tabs Paludrine100mgOnce Daily(OD)7 days
Additional Natural Remedies to go along with the above-listed drugs
– A lot of steam inhalation concoctions (Garlic, Lime, Ginger, Turmeric, Honey )
– Don’t drink the concoctions until you finished taking your tablets medications.
Natural: If you are not taking tablets for prevention, you can do inhalation of a steam concoction of Lemon, Ginger, Garlic, Lime. and drink the concoction afterward.
– Drink a lot of hot water.
– Drink natural fruit juices (Orange, Lime, Lemon, Pineapple)
Drug Dosage Delivery :
– OD means once daily in common language (typically in the morning),
– OD HS means once daily at bedtime.
– BD is actually – b.i.d. meaning bis in die meaning twice a day
– TDS is actually – t.i.d. meaning “ter in die ” in common language: three times a day

Back to Top | Natural COVID-19 Remedies

COVID-19 Vaccine Port Harcourt

COVID-19 Vaccine Center in Port Harcourt

The COVID-19 Vaccine Center in Port Harcourt is now available and free to access. We are now having increasing deaths and the spread of Coronavirus has led various health NGOs, medical and government agencies to provide free access to COVID-19 vaccination centers. You can walk in freely to register and get your first shot of the COVID vaccine.

COVID-19 Vaccine Center Addresses in Port Harcourt

The table show list of currently identified COVID-19 vaccination centers in Port Harcourt, updates will be provided soon.

LGAVaccination CentersAddress
1Port Harcourt BMH – Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (aka. Rivers State University Teaching Hospital)84 Forces Ave, Orogbum 500101, Port Harcourt
2Port HarcourtUNIPORT – University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital – UPTHUniport, Choba
3Port HarcourtMilitary Hospital Port HarcourtGRA Bus stop, Aba Road, Rurome-Rezigbu 500272, Port Harcourt
5Port HarcourtRivers State Ministry of Health at the Rivers State Secretariat2nd Floor, Block A Rivers State Secretariat Complex, Port Harcourt
6Port HarcourtRivers State Primary Health Care Management Board Sick Bay323 Port Harcourt – Aba Expy, Rumueme 500101, Port Harcourt
7Port HarcourtPort Harcourt City Council Sick BayMoscow Rd, Old Port-Harcourt Township
8Port HarcourtObio/Akpor Council Headquarters Sick BayIkwerre Rd, Rumuodomaya 500102, Port Harcourt
9Port HarcourtGovernment House ClinicQ299+3HC, Port Harcourt 500101, Port Harcourt,
10Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center OrogbumOpposite Boms, Elekahia Rd, Junction, Port Harcourt
11Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center BunduShip Builders Road, Old Port Harcourt Twp 500101, Port Harcourt
12Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center Potts Johnson28-32 Potts Johnson St by, Ilorin St, Port Harcourt
13Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center Churchill Road1 Harold Wilson Dr, Port Harcourt 500101, Port Harcourt
14Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center Nkpolu/Mini Mile 3
15Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center MgbundukwuModel Primary Health Center, Opposite Boms, Elekahia Rd, Junction, Port Harcourt
16Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center ElekahiaModel Primary Health Care Centre, Elekahia., R27F+RP7, Elekahia 500101, Port Harcourt
17Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center Okuru-amaEde Okia Community Road, Abuloma 500101, Port Harcourt
18Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center AzuabieTrans Amadi 500101, Port Harcourt
19Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center Ozuboko13 David Street, Off peace Drive, Ozuboko, Fimeama 500101, Port Harcourt, Rivers
20Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center AbulomaAbuloma
21Port HarcourtModel Primary Health Center Amadi-amaAmadi-ama
22Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center EliozuEliozu Road, 500102, Port Harcourt
23Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center IriebeIriebe
24Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center RumuodomayaRumuokwurusi 500102, Port Harcourt
25Obio-AkporFSP Clinic Elelenwo
26Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center WojiEdukasin Filling Station, Woji 500102, Port Harcourt
27Obio-AkporObio Cottage HospitalTrans-Amadi Industrial Layout Rd, Rumuobiakani 500102, Port Harcourt
28Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center MgbuosiminiMgbuosimini
29Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center RumuemeRumueme
30Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center RumuigboRumuigbo
31Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center RumuepirikomBehind Community Secondary School, Rumuepirikom City Centre 500272, Port Harcourt
32Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center Elelenwo185 Old Refinery Road, Elelenwo 501101, Port Harcourt
33Obio-AkporHealth Post RumuokwutaRumuokwuta
34Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center EnekaV2VR+VCP, Eliowani 500102, Port Harcourt
35Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center RukpokwuW232+9J9, Rukpokwu 500102, Port Harcourt
36Obio-AkporPrimary Health Clinic RumuekiniRX54+7HC, 500102, Port Harcourt
37Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center OzuobaVWCH+GJX, 500102, Ozuoba
38Obio-AkporModel Primary Health Center RumuolumeniRX54+7HC, 500102, Port Harcourt
39Obio-AkporU.O.E Demonstration Clinic
40Obio-AkporHealth Post Elieta

COVID-19 Vaccination Mapped Locations in Port Harcourt

Covid-19 Related Knowledge Sources

Related Queries Searched by People Online in Nigeria

Find a list of COVID-19 related queries searched by people online in Nigeria.

Top COVID-19 Queries from Nigeria    

  • Covid Vaccine    (100)
  • Covid 19 Vaccine    (52)
  • Vaccine In Nigeria    (30)
  • Covid-19 Vaccine    (29)
  • Astrazeneca Vaccine   (28)
  • Covid-19    (27)
  • Covid Vaccine Nigeria    (25)
  • What Is Vaccine    (17)
  • Covid Vaccine In Nigeria   (16)
  • Vaccine Meaning    (14)
  • Coronavirus Vaccine   (11)
  • Covid 19 Vaccine In Nigeria   (10)
  • Vaccine For Covid 19    (10)
  • Coronavirus    (9)
  • Astrazeneca Covid Vaccine  (8)
  • Pfizer Vaccine    (8)
  • Moderna Vaccine    (7)
  • Covid Vaccine Side Effects    (7)
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine    (7)
  • Meaning Of Vaccine    6
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine    5
  • Covid 19 Vaccine Registration    5
  • Bcg Vaccine    4
  • Nphcda Vaccine Registration    4
  • Covid 19 Vaccine Update    3

Rising COVID-19 Queries from Nigeria 

  • Astrazeneca Vaccine    (Breakout) 
  • Astrazeneca Covid Vaccine    (Breakout) 
  • Pfizer Vaccine    (Breakout) 
  • Covid Vaccine Side Effects    (Breakout) 
  • Covid 19 Vaccine Registration    (Breakout) 
  • Nphcda Vaccine Registration    (Breakout) 
  • Covid Vaccine Near Me    (Breakout) 
  • Astrazeneca Vaccine Side Effects    (Breakout) 
  • Side Effects Of Covid 19 Vaccine    (Breakout) 
  • Nphcda Vaccine Registration Portal    (Breakout) 
  • Covid 19 Vaccine Side Effects    (Breakout) 
  • Covid-19 Vaccine Side Effects    (Breakout) 
  • Mrna Vaccine    (Breakout) 
  • Moderna Vaccine Side Effects    (Breakout) 
  • Moderna Vaccine    +700%
  • Johnson And Johnson Vaccine    +500%
  • Covid Vaccine In Nigeria    +450%
  • Covid Vaccine Nigeria    +400%
  • Covid 19 Vaccine In Nigeria    +190%
  • Covid-19 Vaccine    +170%
  • Covid Vaccine    +160%
  • Covid-19    +90%
  • Vaccine Meaning    +80%
  • Vaccine For Covid 19    +80%
  • Vaccine In Nigeria    +70%

Back to Top | Google Trends for COVID-19 Vaccine in Nigeria

10 ways founders can manage their mental health while fundraising

Entrepreneurs’ mental health and stress management started to be more widely discussed amid the pandemic, but for many seasoned entrepreneurs, the topic is still taboo. Now that the world seems to be inching toward a new normal, some founders, investors and mental health experts find themselves asking whether we need to consider mental health moving forward if it wasn’t an issue before the pandemic.

“Entrepreneurs bring in a lot of vulnerability into their jobs, and when combined with the risks they are required to take, the vulnerability can be exacerbated when those risks don’t work out,” said Michael Freeman, a clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California San Francisco School of Medicine and founder of Econa.

So how do we address these issues and train entrepreneurs to sharpen and maintain their mental acuity, particularly when things get tough while fundraising?

“With mental health, as is true with many things medical, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure,” Freeman said. “For entrepreneurs who want to prevent mental health issues, they need to start by taking a lifestyle risk factor assessment.”

According to Freeman, there are five ways entrepreneurs can support their mental health.

  1. Sleep.
  2. Exercise, and make sure you sweat.
  3. Get and keep friends that have nothing to do with business.
  4. Eat well, and eat strategically.
  5. Address mental health concerns in weeks, not months.

Based on her experience, here are five more ways entrepreneurs can manage their mental health while fundraising.

  1. Find a counselor or therapist to help navigate your increased stress level.
  2. Give yourself an out.
  3. Leverage your team
  4. Remain flexible with your plans.
  5. Be intentional about the type of stress you’re willing to deal with for money.

The Author:

Adonica Shaw is the founder of Wingwomen, a health-and-wellness-focused social media platform for professional women.

Read the original article on TechCrunch